Unlike other wireless technologies, BLE technology is designed to support a wide transmittable range between two devices, giving developers maximum flexibility to create wireless solutions that best meet the needs of their target use cases. Effective, reliable transmission distances between Bluetooth devices range from about one meter to more than one kilometer.
BLE transmission distance will be affected by many factors as follows:
The higher the transmit power, the more likely it is that the signal will be received at a greater distance, and the BLE transmission range will be longer. However, increasing the transmit power increases the power consumption of the device. Bluetooth technology supports transmission power from -20dBm (0.01 mW) to +20dBm (100 mW). Huapu micro-Bluetooth products can support a maximum transmission power of +20dBm on a single chip without adding a PA.
Receive sensitivity is a measure of the minimum signal strength that a receiver can demodulate. In other words, it is the lowest power level at which a receiver can detect a radio signal, maintain a connection, and still demodulate the data. BLE technology dictates that a device must be able to achieve a minimum receiver sensitivity of -70dBm to -82dBm, depending on the PHY used. However, BLE is usually able to achieve higher receiver sensitivity levels. For example,HOPERF BLE products can achieve a maximum reception sensitivity of -98.9dBm or -106.7dBm when using 1M PHY or 125K PHY.
The antenna converts electrical energy from the transmitter into radio waves and vice versa. Antenna location, package size, and design all greatly affect signal transmission and reception efficiency. Effective antenna gain affects both transmitting and receiving antennas. At the same time, the directivity of the antenna will also have an impact on transmission or reception.
Path loss is the reduction in signal strength of radio waves as they propagate through a medium. Path loss, or path attenuation, occurs naturally over distance and is affected by the signal transmission environment. Obstacles between the transmitter and receiver can degrade the signal, and the amount of attenuation and effective path loss varies with the type and density of the obstruction.